Because paper historically has been made from trees, in the U.S. this industry originated in the Northeast, and migrated to the upper Midwest, west, and the Gulf Coast region.  Paper is made from pulp, plus additives & chemicals, and the manufacturing process and equipment vary according to the type of paper. Most pulp is made from trees, and nowadays a large amount from recycled paper. Paper money and high quality stationery is made from cotton fiber. At its essence, it is the cellulose fiber formed into a web that is paper. A Pulp and Paper plant is large, technically advanced, complicated and sophisticated. It encompasses handling logs, then chemicals and a slurry that is dried to a web, which is trimmed to usable paper. A paper machine is the largest piece of equipment in industry, as big, but heavier than a jumbo jet.  Causey’s extensive knowledge and experience in the Pulp and Paper industry is available now in a person trained in Forensic Engineering work to support your case.

The pictures below represent some of the specific types of work and processes in this industry.

 Pulp & Paper Machines:


The biggest single piece of equipment in industry is a Paper Machine.  And a papermachine is also very sophisticated.

Papermachines make paper at 50 to 60 miles per hour.




The lime kiln and recaustizing part of this pulping process are part of the chemical recovery cycle.







A well-designed facility embraces optimum use of the raw material, energy, and manpower, and minimizes hazards, downtime, off quality product, clean up and wearing out.







The longest piece of lumber at your home improvement center is 16 feet, half as long as the widest paper machines.  These huge long rolls are installed to within the thickness of 3 hairs on your head.




Paper is mostly cellulous fiber.  Trees are half cellulous, half lignin - the glue which holds the fiber together




In pulping, lignin is cooked out of the wood chips.  But recycled paper already has the lignin removed. 

The cost of collecting the recycled paper and cleaning debris like staples and ink, keep the cost of recycled pulp high.


Manufacturing pulp from bales of wastepaper requires considerable equipment to produce a clean, uniform pulp.




The HAZOP procedure is a requirement that can help identify potential safety hazards.  But it still requires experienced people from engineering, plant operations and safety to spot the hazard, and eliminate or mitigate it.